|URBAN MALARIA SCHEME (UMS)
Control Strategies under Urban Malaria Scheme:
Under the scheme, Malaria Control strategy will comprise of (i) Parasite control & (ii) Vector control
- Parasite control: Treatment is done through passive agencies viz. hospitals, dispensaries both in private & public sectors and private practitioners. In mega cities malaria clinics are established by each health sector/ malaria control agencies viz. Municipal Corporations, Railways, Defence services
- Vector control comprises of the following components
The control of urban malaria lies primarily in the implementation of urban byelaws to prevent mosquito breeding in domestic and peri-domestic areas, or residential blocks and government/commercial buildings, construction sites. Use of larvivorous fish in the water bodies such as slow moving streams, lakes, ornamental ponds, etc. is also recommended. Larvicides are used for water bodies, which are unsuitable for use of larvivorous fish. Awareness campaigns are also undertaken by Municipal Bodies/Urban area authorities.
- Source reduction
- Use of larvicides
- Use of larvivorous fish
- Space spray
- Minor engineering
- Legislative measure
The control measures recommended under UMS are as below:
High Risk towns:
- Source reduction (Guidelines for Source Reduction)
Environmental methods of controlling mosquito breeding including source reduction minor engineering works, by filling ditches, pits, low lying areas, streamlining, canalizing, desilting, deweeding, trimming of drains, water disposal and sanitation, emptying water containers once in a week and observing weekly Dry Day etc.
- Anti-larval methods
Recurrent anti-larval measures at weekly intervals with approved chemical larvicides to control the vector mosquitoes are recommended. The following chemical larvicides are used in the Urban Malaria Scheme programme:
- Bti (WP & 12 AS)
Biological Control (Guidelines for Larvivorous fish)
In some urban areas larvivorous fish like Gambusia and Guppy are also used in certain situations where the chemical control is not feasible. Biological larvicide, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis either wettable powder or aqueous suspension are also used for control of aquatic stages of vector mosquitoes.
- Aerosol Space Spray
Space spraying of pyrethrum extract (2%) in 50 houses in and around every malaria and dengue positive cases to kill the infective mosquitoes is recommended.